Brahma (sanscrito: ब्रह्मा, Brahmā) esse un deo Hindu, sovente referite como “le creator” intra le Trimurti, le trinitate que insimul representa le divinitate supreme et que etiam include deos Vishnu, et Shiva.[1][2][3] Ille es associate cum creation, cognoscentia, et le Vedas.[4][5][6][7] Brahma es notabilemente mentionate in mythos de creation. In alicun Puranas, ille creava se ipse ab un embryon aureate cognite como le hiranyagarbha.

Un pictura de Brahma.

Brahma es frequentemente identificate cum le deo Vedic Prajapati.[8] Dum le periodo post-Vedic, Brahma esseva un deitate prominente et il habeva sectas que le venerava; tamen, per le seculo VII, ille habeva perdite su significantia. Etiam, ille era eclipsate per altere deitates major como Vishnu, Shiva, et Devi, et degradate al rolo de un creator inferior, qui era create per le altere deitates major.[9][10][11]

Brahma es communmente depicte como un homine cum un longe barba et un carnation rubie vel aureate, et cum quatro manos et capites. Su quatro capites representa le quatro Vedas et puncta al quatro diretiones cardinal. Ille sede sur un loto et su vahana (monta) esse un ave hamsa, un cygno. Secundo le scripturas, Brahma creava su filios per su mente et, ergo, illes son cognite como Manasaputra.[12][13]

In Hinduismo contemporanee, le culto de Brahma non esse multo popular et ille habe substantialmente minus importantia que le altere duo membros del Trimurti. Brahma es venerate in le textos ancian; hac non obstante, ille es rarmente venerate in India como un deitate primari, nam le absentia de ulle secta dedicate a su veneration.[14] Il ha multo pauc templos dedicate a ille in India, le plus famose essente le templo de Brahma in Pushkar, in Rajasthan.[15] Alicun templos de Brahma pote esser trovate extra India, como le delubro Erawan in Bangkok.[16]

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Referentias Modificar

  1. White, David (2006). Kiss of the Yogini. University of Chicago Press, 4, 29. ISBN 978-0226894843. 
  2. Jan Gonda (1969), The Hindu Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pp. 212–226.
  3. Jan Gonda (1969), The Hindu Trinity, Anthropos, Bd 63/64, H 1/2, pp. 218–219.
  4. N.A (1960). THE VAYU PURANA PART. 1. MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PVT. LTD, DELHI, 174 (26.31). 
  5. (2013) Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. Routledge, 240. ISBN 978-1-135-96397-2. , Quote: "Brahma, a creator god, received the basics of his mythological history from Purusha. During the Brahmanic period, the Hindu Trimurti was represented by Brahma with his attribute of creation, Shiva with his attribute of destruction and Vishnu with his attribute of preservation."
  6. Sullivan, Bruce (1999). Seer of the Fifth Veda: Kr̥ṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa in the Mahābhārata. Motilal Banarsidass, 85–86. ISBN 978-8120816763. 
  7. Holdrege, Barbara (2012). Veda and Torah: Transcending the Textuality of Scripture. State University of New York Press, 88–89. ISBN 978-1438406954. 
  8. Leeming, David (2009). Creation Myths of the World, 2nd, 146. ISBN 978-1598841749. ;
    David Leeming (2005), The Oxford Companion to World Mythology, Oxford University Press, (ISBN 978-0195156690), page 54, Quote: "Especially in the Vedanta Hindu Philosophy, Brahman is the Absolute. In the Upanishads, Brahman becomes the eternal first cause, present everywhere and nowhere, always and never. Brahman can be incarnated in Brahma, in Vishnu, in Shiva. To put it another way, everything that is, owes its existence to Brahman. In this sense, Hinduism is ultimately monotheistic or monistic, all gods being aspects of Brahman"; Also see pages 183-184, Quote: "Prajapati, himself the source of creator god Brahma – in a sense, a personification of Brahman (...) Moksha, the connection between the transcendental absolute Brahman and the inner absolute Atman."
  9. Achuthananda, Swami (2018-08-27). The Ascent of Vishnu and the Fall of Brahma (in en). Relianz Communications Pty Ltd. ISBN 978-0-9757883-3-2. 
  10. Kramrisch, Stella (1994). The Presence of Siva. Princeton University Press, 205–206. ISBN 978-0691019307. 
  11. Pattanaik, Devdutt (September 2000). The Goddess in India:The Five Faces of the Eternal Feminine (in en). Inner Traditions / Bear & Co. ISBN 978-0-89281-807-5. 
  12. Dalal, Roshen (2014-04-18). The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths (in en). Penguin UK. ISBN 9788184753967. 
  13. Charles Coulter and Patricia Turner (2000), Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities, Routledge, (ISBN 978-0786403172), page 258, Quote: "When Brahma is acknowledged as the supreme god, it was said that Kama sprang from his heart."
  14. Morris, Brian (2005). Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge University Press, 123. ISBN 978-0521852418. 
  15. Charkravarti, SS (2001). Hinduism, a Way of Life. Motilal Banarsidass, 15. ISBN 978-8120808997. 
  16. London, Ellen (2008). Thailand Condensed: 2,000 Years of History & Culture. Marshall Cavendish, 74. ISBN 978-9812615206.