Le Homeopathia (ab greco hómoios- ὅμοιος- ("simul-") + páthos πάθος ("suffrentia"))[1] es un forma de medicina alternative primo exponite per Samuel Hahnemann in 1796, le qual tracta un maladia con preparationes multo diluite create ab substantias que normalmente causarea effectos similar al symptomas del maladia. Iste substantias es serialmente diluite, con succussion inter cata passo, secundo le credentia que isto augmenta le effecto del tractamento. Iste dilution es normalmente multo extense, e frequentemente continua usque al puncto del probabilitate que remane nulle molecula del substantia original.[2]

instantia de: alternative medical treatment[*], quackery[*], branch of pseudoscience[*], parascience[*]
subclasse de: alternative medicine[*]

Commons: Homeopathy

In addition al maladia mesme, le homeopathos pote usar aspectos del stato physic e physiologic del patiente pro seliger inter tractamentos.[3][4] Postea es consultate libros de referentia create per homeopathos, appellate "reparatorios", e un remedio es seligite a base del indice de symptomas. Le remedios homeopathic es generalmente considerate como secur, con rar exceptiones;[5][6] nonobstante, homeopathos ha essite accusate de poner patientes in risco con recommendationes a evitar le medicina conventional, como vaccinationes,[7] drogas anti-malaria,[8] e antibioticos.[9] In multe paises, le leges que governa le regulation e prova del drogas conventional non es applicabile al remedios homeopathic.[10]

Le assertiones concernente le efficacia del homeopathia (ultra le effecto placebo) non es supportate per le massa collective del evidentia scientific e clinic.[11][12][13][14][15] Un specific effecto pharmacologic in le absentia de moleculas active es scientificamente implausibile[16][17] e viola plure principios fundamental del scientia,[18] como le lege de action de massa.[18] Un pauc de experimentos de bon qualitate supporta le efficacia del homeopathia, sed le resultatos non es definitive ni ha essite replicate,[19] plure experimentos de bon qualitate existe que monstra nulle evidentia in favor de alcun effecto del homeopathia, e le experimentos del remedios homeophatic ha generalmente essite demonstrate de haber problemas que los impedi de esser considerate como evidentia inambigue pro le efficacia del homeopathia.[20][11] [21] A causa del manco de evidentia scientific convincente demonstrante le efficacia del homeopathia[15] e su uso de remedios sin ingredientes active, le homeopathia ha essite describite como pseudoscientia[22] e charlatanismo.[23][24]

Referentias modificar

  1. Oxford English Dictionary
  2. Dynamization and Dilution. Creighton University Department of Pharmacology. Recuperate le 2007-10-09.
  3. Hahnemann Samuel, Organon of medicine, aphorism 217
  4. Hahnemann, Samuel (1833). The Hœmeopathic Medical Doctrine, or Organon of the healing art. OCLC 32732625.  aphorism 5
  5. Zicam Settlement. Online Lawyer Source. Archivo del original create le 2008-02-06. Recuperate le 2007-10-25.
  6. Chakraborti, D; Mukherjee, SC; Saha, KC; Chowdhury, UK, et al (2003). "Arsenic toxicity from homeopathic treatment". Clinical Toxicology 47 (1): 963–967. doi:10.1081/CLT-120026518. 
  7. Ernst E, White AR (1995). "Homoeopathy and immunization". The British journal of general practice: the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners 45 (400): 629–630. PMID 8554846. 
  8. Jones, Meirion (2006-07-14). "Malaria advice 'risks lives'", BBC News. Recuperate le 2007-07-25. 
  9. "Critical review of The Science of Homeopathy" (October 1978). British Homoeopathic Journal 67.  Archived 2013-05-29 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Legal status of traditional medicine and complementary/alternative medicine: A worldwide review (PDF). World Health Organization. World Health Organization (2001). Recuperate le 2007-09-12.
  11. 11,0 11,1 Ernst E (2002). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy". Br J Clin Pharmacol 54 (6): 577–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2002.01699.x. PMID 12492603. 
  12. Homeopathy results. National Health Service. Recuperate le 2007-07-25.
  13. Report 12 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A–97). American Medical Association (June 1997). Recuperate le 2007-07-25.
  14. Altunç U, Pittler MH, Ernst E (2007). "Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Mayo Clin Proc 82 (1): 69–75. doi:10.4065/82.1.69. PMID 17285788. 
  15. 15,0 15,1 Adler Jerry (4 February 2008). "No way to treat the dying", Newsweek. 
  16. Shang A, Huwiler-Müntener K, Nartey L, et al (2005). "Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy". Lancet 366 (9487): 726–732. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67177-2. PMID 16125589. 
  17. Ernst E (2005). "Is homeopathy a clinically valuable approach?". Trends Pharmacol Sci 26 (11): 547–8. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.09.003. PMID 16165225. 
  18. 18,0 18,1 "When to believe the unbelievable" (1988). Nature 333 (30): 787. doi:10.1038/333787a0. 
  19. Toufexis Anastasia (25 September 1995). "Is homeopathy good medicine?", Time, pp. 2. Recuperate le 2008-04-20. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. (page numbering given from online version)
  20. Linde et al (1999,). "Impact of study quality on outcome in placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy". J Clin Epidemiol 52 (7): 631–636. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(99)00048-7. 
  21. Patrono:Cite study
    Linde K, Jonas WB, Melchart D, Willich S (2001). "The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of homeopathy, herbal medicines and acupuncture". International journal of epidemiology 30 (3): 526–531. doi:10.1093/ije/30.3.526. PMID 11416076. 
    Altunç U, Pittler MH, Ernst E (2007). "Homeopathy for childhood and adolescence ailments: systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Mayo Clin Proc 82 (1): 69–75. doi:10.4065/82.1.69. PMID 17285788. 
  22. National Science Board (April 2002). Science and engineering indicators. National Science Foundation Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences. Archivo del original create le 2016-04-25. Recuperate le 2009-02-17.
  23. Wahlberg A (2007). "A quackery with a difference—New medical pluralism and the problem of 'dangerous practitioners' in the United Kingdom". Social Science & Medicine 65 (11): 2307–2316. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.07.024. PMID 17719708. 
  24. Atwood KC (April 2003). "'Neurocranial Restructuring' and Homeopathy, Neither Complementary nor Alternative". Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 129 (12): 1356–7. doi:10.1001/archotol.129.12.1356. PMID 14676179.