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A four-by-four table of particles. Columns are three generations of matter (fermions) and one of forces (bosons). In the first three columns, two rows contain quarks and two leptons. The top two rows' columns contain up (u) and down (d) quarks, charm (c) and strange (s) quarks, top (t) and bottom (b) quarks, and photon (γ) and gluon (g), respectively. The bottom two rows' columns contain electron neutrino (ν sub e) and electron (e), muon neutrino (ν sub μ) and muon (μ), and tau neutrino (ν sub τ) and tau (τ), and Z sup 0 and W sup ± weak force. Mass, charge, and spin are listed for each particle.
Le particulas del Modello standard. Le tres columnas de fermiones son de generationes de materia.

Fermion es le appellation date in physica nuclear a un particula elementari cuje spin es un multiplo impare de ½. Fermiones include le quarkes e leptones que constitue le materia ordinari del universe, materia cuje neutrones e protones son baryones componite de tres quarkes.

Le fermiones que forma le materia son los del prime generation de materia: le quarkes up e down, le electron, e le neutrino del electron.

Le atomos son componite de duo typos differente de fermiones:

  • nucleones facite de tres quarkes in duo combinationes differente, neutrones (1 quark up e 2 quarkes down) e protones (2 quarkes up e 1 quark down)
  • electrones

Fermiones que son ligate per bosones, particulas elementari del fortias cuje spin es un multiplo par de ½.